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- EssaysEric Dinerstein Bill Young
Early Spring Date: April 25 Late Spring Date: May 31 Most Frequently Seen: April 17-24
Early Spring Date: May 3 Late Spring Date: May 29 Infrequently Seen
Yellow-billed Cuckoos breed in the Washington metro area. They are not known to breed at Monticello Park, but they might breed in the surrounding neighborhood. Black-billed Cuckoos are uncommon migrants during the spring. On average, they are encountered roughly once every two years. They breed in the northern United States and through the Appalachian Mountains, and you have little chance of seeing one at Monticello.
Where to See Them in the Park
Both cuckoo species usually perch in the canopy, and they can be difficult to find even if they are vocalizing. They sometimes come lower, and on rare occasions, will go into the stream for a quick drink.
Cuckoos are large birds with a long tail and pointed wings; in flight, they look a bit like a falcon. The two cuckoo species look similar, but there are key differences. The Yellow-billed Cuckoo has a thick bill, with the lower half yellow and the upper half mostly black. The underparts are white, the back is brown, and the wings have rufous feathers. The black undertail feathers have broad white tips that look like spots. The orbital ring (the skin surrounding the eye) is yellowish or light-colored.
Black-billed Cuckoos have a black bill with no yellow. The orbital ring is red, and the tail feathers have white tips that look like narrow bars instead of white spots. Black-billed Cuckoos have little or no rufous in their wings. While they generally stay high in the trees, the one pictured above came down to a fallen tree at the front of Monticello. The tree was full of tent caterpillars, and the cuckoo stayed at eye level for hours, enjoying the food bonanza.
The call of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo is a long series of notes, often of three types, with the first few short and woody, the second few longer and woody, and the third a series of loud, sweet coo sounds. The call of the Black-billed is a much simpler coo-coo-coo-coo, delivered quickly.
Worldwide, the cuckoo family has more than 140 species, some of whom are famous for being parasitic nesters — i.e., they lay their eggs in the nests of other species and let the hosts incubate the eggs and raise the young. Yellow-billed and Black-billed Cuckoos both build nests and raise young. However, Yellow-billed Cuckoos will sometimes lay their eggs in the nests of Black-billed Cuckoos, and some Black-billed Cuckoos will lay their eggs in the nests of other Black-billed Cuckoos.
Origin of Names
Common Names: Yellow-billed from the yellow lower mandible. Black-billed from the black bill. Cuckoo from the call of the European Cuckoo.
Genus Name: Coccyzus is a cuckoo.
Species Names: Americanus means "from America". Erythropthalmus means "red-eyed", even though the red is on the skin surrounding the eye.
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